There are four different types of computers when we classify them based on their
performance, capacity, and size.
Supercomputers were introduced in the 1960s and were designed primarily by
Seymour Cray at Control Data Corporation (CDC), and later at Cray Research. While
the supercomputers of the 1970s used only a few processors, in the 1990s, machines
with thousands of processors began to appear and by the end of the 20th century,
massively parallel supercomputers with tens of thousands of “off-the-shelf” processors
were the norm.
Systems with a massive number of processors generally take one of two paths: in one approach, e.g. in grid computing the processing power of a large number of computers in distributed, diverse administrative domains, is opportunistically used whenever a
computer is available. In another approach, a large number of processors are used in close proximity to each other, e.g. in a computer cluster. The use of multi-core
processors combined with centralization is an emerging direction.
As of November 2014, China’s Tianhe-2 supercomputer is the fastest in the world at
(PFLOPS), or 33.86 quadrillion floating-point operations per second.
· India’s supercomputer program was started in the late 1980s because Cray
supercomputers were denied for
import due to an arms embargo imposed on India, as it was a dual-use technology and
could be used for
developing nuclear weapons.
· PARAM 8000 is considered India’s first supercomputer. It was indigenously built-in
1990 by Centre for
Development of Advanced Computing and was replicated and installed at ICAD
Moscow in 1991 under
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