There are a few special IP addresses on the internet which are used only under special circumstances:
:- The limited-broadcast IP Address. The limited IP address is 255.255.255.255. This special IP address is most commonly used during system setup when the system has little idea about its own IP address and subnet address. It is also seen quite often in routing tables of various systems (for more information on routing tables, read the section titled “Getting Information about a Remote System’s Routing Tables’.
:- The network-directed broadcast IP address. This special IP address has the host part made up of all 255s, with its network to which it is applicable. A typical example is 18.104.22.168, where the network part of IP address is 203 and the remaining part is the host-address part. Routers usually forward packets address to a network-directed broadcast address.
:- The subnet-directed broadcast IP address. Here, both the host and the subnet part of the address is represented by 255s, whereas the subnet part of the address stands for an actual subnet.
:- All-subnets-directed broadcast IP address, Here, both the host and the subnet part of the address is represented by 255s, wherever such an address is being used.
:-The loopback IP address. This special IP address stands for the local-host system. A packet addressed to the loopback address is actually addressed to the same local machine from which it originated. In effect, Both the source and destination IP address point to the same system, though their values might be different. All loopback address must have the network part as 127; the most commonly used loopback address is 127.0.0.1.
:- The Zeros IP address. Typically, the 0.0.0.0 IP address is used as the zeros IP address. Such as an IP address is mostly seen in a system’s log files. If you see packet sent from the zeros IP address. It means that an attacker is trying to fingerprint the target system(that is, the system where the log files were examined).
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