Introduction to Computer

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Introduction to Computer


Full-Form Of COMPUTER is ” Common Operating Machine Purposely Used for Technological and Educational Research ” Computer is an electronic device for storing and processing data, typically in binary form, according to instructions given to it in a variable program.

Functionalities of a computer
Any digital computer carries out five functions in gross terms: 
1. Takes data as input through input devices (That user insert)
2. Stores the data/instruction in its memory and use them.
3. Process that data and convert it into useful information.
4. Generates the output.
Controls all the above four steps.

Computer Components
Any kind of computers consists of HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

Hardware: Computer hardware is the collection of physical elements that constitutes a computer system. Computer hardware refers to the physical parts or components of a computer such as the monitor, mouse, keyboard, computer data storage, hard drive disk (HDD),
system unit (graphic cards, sound cards, memory, motherboard and chips), etc. all of which are physical objects that can be touch.

Input Devices  

Input device is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or other information appliance.

Input device Translate data from form that humans understand to one that the computer can work with. Most common are keyboard and mouse

Example of Input Devices:-

1. Keyboard 2. Mouse (pointing device) 3. Microphone
4. Touch screen 5. Scanner 6. Webcam
7. Touchpads 8. MIDI keyboard 9.  
10. Graphics Tablets 11. Cameras 12. Pen Input
13. Video Capture Hardware 14. Microphone 15. Trackballs
16. Barcode reader 17. Digital camera 18. Joystick
19. Gamepad 20. Electronic Whiteboard 21.

Note: The most common use keyboard is the QWERTY keyboard. Generally standard Keyboard has 104 keys

Central Processing Unit (CPU)   

A CPU is brain of a computer. It is responsible for all functions and processes. Regarding computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system. 

The CPU is comprised of three main parts :

  • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): Executes all arithmetic and logical operations. Arithmetic calculations like as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

Logical operation like compare numbers, letters, or special characters * Control Unit (CU):  controls and co-ordinates computer components.

  1. Read the code for the next instruction to be executed.
    1. Increment the program counter so it points to the next instruction.
    1. Read whatever data the instruction requires from cells in memory.
    1. Provide the necessary data to an ALU or register.
    1. If the instruction requires an ALU or specialized hardware to complete, instruct the hardware to perform the requested operation.
  2. Registers :Stores the data that is to be executed next, “very fast storage area”.

Primary Memory:-

  1. RAM: Random Access Memory (RAM) is a memory scheme within the computer system responsible for storing data on a temporary basis, so that it can be promptly accessed by the processor as and when needed. It is volatile in nature, which means that data will be erased once supply to the storage device is turned off. RAM stores data randomly and the processor accesses these data randomly from the RAM storage. RAM is considered “random access” because you can access any memory cell directly if you know the row and column that intersect at that cell.


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