Input, Output and Storage

March 3, 2020
Introduction concept of programming
March 30, 2020
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Input, Output and Storage

Basically Computer is a combination of input, output and storage devices.
So let’s start understanding each one.

Input Devices
Simply, The devices through which the user can enter the data or give the commands to the computer are known as input devices.
Input devices are used to provide input which can be understood by the computer such as raw data, information, command, order, signal… To process input, computer absolutely needs an input device, it is the most important part of computers.
List of Input Devices:-

  1. Keyboard
  2. Mouse
  3. Joy Stick
  4. Light pen
  5. Track Ball
  6. Scanner
  7. Graphic Tablet
  8. Microphone
  9. Magnetic Ink Card Reader(MICR)
  10. Optical Character Reader(OCR)
  11. Bar Code Reader
  12. Optical Mark Reader(OMR)

Output Devices
Simply, The device through which user can get data or information through the computer is known as output devices.
the output device is also a peripheral and hardware device used to receive the result of the processing data that comes from its input. All computers or information systems absolutely need output devices.
Output devices are also known as the way that the computer communicates with the human.

List of Input Devices:-

  • Monitors
  • Graphic Plotter
  • Printer

Storage Devices
Simply, Thes are those devices that help the user to store information or data on the computer.
There are primarily three types of storage a computer possess, first, the primary storage, which is more popularly called simply a memory; the secondary storage, which is more popularly referred to as simply storage, and finally the offline storage referred to as movable storage.

Primary Storage:

Primary storage is where a computer stores data on a temporary basis so it can process the data. Think of primary storage as “short term memory”. Primary storage is a type of memory that is directly accessible to a computer processor and it is volatile because it is temporary in nature and is erased when the power is turned off.

The main primary storages are:

RAM (Random Access Memory)

ROM (Read Only Memory)

Data the computer is currently processing or data that the computer knows it is about to need for processing is stored in primary storage. Memory in primary storage can be accessed quickly by the CPU. Its storage capacity, however, is much smaller than what can be stored in secondary or tertiary storage. Computers need just enough primary storage to function and temporarily hold anticipated amounts of data for processing.

Secondary Storage:
Secondary storage is where a computer stores data it is not currently processing but which it may need at some later time. Secondary storage can be thought of as “long term memory”, or storage, and it is non-volatile in nature because data remains intact even when power to a computer is turned off. Operating systems, documents, music files and so on are typically stored in a secondary storage device. They can also be external for movement and transport.

The main device for secondary storage is the hard disk drive (HDD). The computer’s largest secondary storage location is its hard disk drive or just hard drive. Hard drives are platters like dishes that are stacked top, middle, and bottom to make one unit. Hard drives are mechanical devices that store data magnetically. They are considered permanent storage.

Among the advantages of a hard disk drive is its storage capability, from Megabyte to Terabyte. Hard disk drives are durable, with metal casings built around their inner components. Hard disk drives are read/write. They can be read over and over and they can be modified, or written to, over and over.

Offline storage:
Offline storage is storage media that can be inserted into the computer and used but which can then be removed from the computer and stored elsewhere. It can also be external sources which are connected to the computer and then disconnected, like floppy drives, CD drives, DVD drives, USB flash drive, and Blu-ray drives.

Floppy drive is an old form of storage, its capacity is very few up to 1 or 2 Megabytes so it isn’t used nowadays, but it is categorized as offline storage because they are non-volatile and be able to read or written to over and over again.
CD drive (Compact Disk) and DVD drive (Digital Video Disc) store data on shiny discs, the capacity of CD drive is up to 700 Megabytes and the DVD drive is 4.7 Gigabytes and 8.5 Gigabytes on a double layer DVD, they are very compact and portable storage with a good amount of storage, so it is the primary commercial storage device, used for video, audio, software, games and so on. But the disadvantages are that it can be infected by viruses if used with bad intention, also if the layer of the disk gets damaged like scratch the computer will not be able to read anymore so a loss of data.

USB flash drive, which is the most portable storage device with a great amount of storage, they can support 128 Megabytes to 256 Gigabytes, and it is the easiest way to carry data from place to place due to its connectivity via USB port. Unfortunately, USB flash drive is very fragile, easily breakable, and can be easily get corrupted or infected by viruses, so basically used for a short amount of time before it is useless.


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