30 Mar Introduction concept of programming
It is the process of writing, testing and maintaining the source code of computer language. The source code is a code that is written in a programming language i.e. source language. The source language may be any high level language which is easily understandable by the user of the language. The process of writing the source code requires that the programmer should expert in many areas of the programming language i.e. its application domain, designing algorithms and flowchart and the formal logic of the programs. The task of developing programs for the solution of the computational problem is known as “computer programming” The person involved in written programs is known as a “programmer”.
Programming concepts :-
There are many different languages that can be used to program a computer. The most important of these is machine language. Machine language is a collection of a sequence of instructions written in the form of binary numbers consisting of 0’s and 1’s to which computer responds directly. This is the natural way to interact with the computer. Very few computer programs are written in machine language because of two significant reasons: first, because machine language is very difficult to work with and second because every different type of computer has its own unique instruction set. Thus a program written for one type of computer in machine language, can not be run another computer without some alteration. So it is not portable. Usually, a computer program will be written in some high-level language which is very much similar and compatible with human language. Some other Basic, FORTRAN, Pascal. These are various special-purpose languages that is designed especially for some particular application e.g. LISP, a list processing language used for artificial intelligence (AI) applications.
A single construction in a high-level language is equivalent to several instructions in machine language, which simplifies the task of writing complete and correct programs. Also writing programs in a high-level language are almost some of all the computers so that a program written for one computer can be run on other computers with little or no change. So high-level language is simple, Uniform and portable as compared to machine language.
A program that is written in a high-level language must be written or translated into machine language before execution. This process is known as compilation or interpretation. The compiler translates the entire program into machine language before executing any instructions. Interpreters, on the other hand, translate and execute a single instruction at a time. In both, the translation of the case is carried out automatically within a computer A compiler or interpreter is itself a computer program. It accepts high-level language (eg C, C++, java, python, etc) program as input and generates a corresponding machine language program as an output.